Le toast de Londres (French Edition)

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon church) professes to be a Christian church. However, a careful comparison of basic doctrinal.

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With the wealth he gained, Nader started to build an Iranian navy.

History of Nadir Shah ( Nader Shah) in Hindi & Urdu.

With lumber from Mazandaran , he built ships in Bushehr. He also purchased thirty ships in India. In , he conquered Oman and its main capital Muscat. In , Nader started another war against the Ottoman Empire. Despite having a huge army at his disposal, in this campaign Nader showed little of his former military brilliance. It ended in with the signing of a peace treaty, the Treaty of Kerden , in which the Ottomans agreed to let Nader occupy Najaf.

Nader changed the Iranian coinage system. He minted silver coins, called Naderi , that were equal to the Mughal rupee. Nader Shah transformed the Shahsevan , a nomadic group living around Azerbaijan whose name literally means "shah lover", into a tribal confederacy which defended Iran against the neighbouring Ottomans and Russians. Nader became increasingly cruel as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns.

New revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims' skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. In , Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Some of his officers and courtiers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him, including two of his relatives: Muhammad Quli Khan, the captain of the guards, and Salah Khan, the overseer of Nader's household. Nader Shah was assassinated on 20 June , [7] at Quchan in Khorasan.

He was surprised in his sleep by around fifteen conspirators, and stabbed to death. Nader was able to kill two of the assassins before he died. Around fifteen of the conspirators were impatient or merely eager to distinguish themselves, and so turned up prematurely at the agreed meeting place.

History of Nadir Shah

They entered the enclosure of the royal tent, pushing and smashing their way through any obstacles, and penetrated into the sleeping quarters of that ill-starred monarch. Bring me my weapons! Spare my life and all I have shall be yours! Thus perished the wealthiest monarch on earth.

After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah "righteous king". Adil Shah was probably involved in the assassination plot. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nader's grandson Shah Rukh and almost all provincial governors declared independence , established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nader Shah fell into anarchy. Oman and the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara and Khiva regained independence, while the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in Western Armenia and Mesopotamia.

Finally, Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and became ruler of Iran by Erekle II and Teimuraz II , who, in , had been made the kings of Kakheti and Kartli respectively by Nader himself for their loyal service, [58] capitalized on the eruption of instability, and declared de facto independence. Erekle II assumed control over Kartli after Teimuraz II's death, thus unifying the two as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti , becoming the first Georgian ruler in three centuries to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia, [59] and due to the frantic turn of events in mainland Iran he would be able to maintain its autonomy until the advent of the Iranian Qajar dynasty.

Until the advent of the Zands and Qajars, its rulers had various forms of autonomy, but stayed vassals and subjects to the Iranian king. Nader Shah was well known to the European public of the time.

  • Samsara: the wheel of life!
  • Nadir Shah.
  • Nadir Shah's Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran?

Without Nader, "eventual British [in India] would have come later and in a different form, perhaps never at all - with important global effects". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Persian shah. For the 20th-century king of Afghanistan, see Mohammed Nadir Shah. For the cricket umpire, see Nadir Shah umpire. For the cricketer, see Nadir Shah cricketer.

History of India

Tomb of Nader Shah , Mashhad , Iran. Nader's Campaigns. Main article: Battle of Gulnabad. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Tauris, , pp. Tauris, , p. Nadir Shah: A critical study based mainly upon contemporary sources.

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Nadir Shah's quest for legitimacy in post-Safavid Iran. The Qereqlu Afshars to whom Nader's father belonged were a semi-nomadic Turcoman tribe settled in Khorasan in north-eastern Iran The tribes of Khorasan were for the most part ethnically distinct from the Persian-speaking population, speaking Turkic or Kurdish languages.

Nader's mother tongue was a dialect of the language group spoken by the Turkic tribes of Iran and Central Asia, and he would have quickly learned Persian, the language of high culture and the cities as he grew older. But the Turkic language was always his preferred everyday speech, unless he was dealing with someone who knew only Persian.

Retrieved 27 May Edward G. London: Packard Humanities Institute.


Retrieved Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, Touraj Daryaee, Oxford University Press, , Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 17 December Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 8 March Journal of the American Oriental Society , Vol. The History of Iran. Greenwood Publishing Group: Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. In , Nadir was placed in command of Babulu Khan's force of 6, men.

Babulu Khan recognized that, at the age of 33, Nadir's military acumen was far keener than that of his more experienced officers. Nadir led these men to confront 10, Tartars on horseback. By choosing the right vantage point he scored his first military victory, killing 3, Tartars and reclaiming all the plunder and captives. Nadir returned in triumph. Marching up to Babulu Khan, he demanded that he be made a general. Khan stalled, with the excuse that he would have to get permission from Shah Sultan Hussein, the Persian emperor.

Either because royal permission was not granted or because Babulu Khan gave in to the growing jealousy among his army officers, Nadir was denied command of the forces.

Instead, a much younger man, who was related to Babulu Khan and was also an officer without much experience, was appointed to the position. Wild with disappointment, Nadir charged that Babulu Khan had not acted as a man of honor. Such insolence from a protege was not easily tolerated in those days, and Nadir rapidly fell from grace.

Babulu Khan had him whipped on the soles of his feet, one of the most painful punishments that can be endured. After leaving in disgrace, Nadir turned for help to an uncle, an Afshar chieftain from the town of Kaelat. However, the uncle became suspicious of Nadir's ambitious nature and distanced himself from his nephew.

Nadir resumed his life of crime, collecting a band of men who would come down regularly from the mountains to loot villages in Khorasan province, or extorting regular contributions from villagers. However, they did not have control of the entire empire, and Shah Tehmas, fourth son of Sultan Hussein was considered the lawful king of Persia. Around , one of Shah Tehmas's generals fled with of his men when he feared that some action would provoke the king's anger. This general joined forces with Nadir and his men, instantly increasing their numbers to Nadir's uncle grew alarmed because his nephew was within striking distance of Kaelat.


Battle of Karnal

The uncle wrote Nadir an ingratiating letter, promising to plead for royal pardon to Shah Tehmas so that Nadir and his followers could find legitimate employment in the army of Shah Tehmas. Nadir accepted his uncle's proposal and Shah Tehmas signed the royal pardon, being in need of soldiers for his army.

Nadir went to Kaelat with a few of his men, to be welcomed enthusiastically by his uncle. The second night after his arrival, Nadir ordered that all the sentries be killed and shut the remaining men in their barracks. He went into his uncle's chamber and murdered him. At a prearranged signal from Nadir, more of his men moved in and quickly took control.